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- Laminectomy and fusion for the treatment of cervical degenerative myelopathy.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009; 11: 150-156
- The Rand/UCLA appropriateness method user's manual. xiii. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica2001: 109
Conflicts of Interest - Disclosure & Management Policy. 2019; Available from: https://www.spine.org/Portals/0/Assets/Downloads/WhoWeAre/DisclosurePolicy.pdf. Accessed in 2021.
- Predictors of outcome after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a multivariate analysis.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 15; 34: 161-166
- Complications following posterior cervical decompression and fusion: a review of incidence, risk factors, and prevention strategies.J Spine Surg. 2020; 6: 323-333
- Current diagnosis and management of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Global Spine J. 2017; 7: 572-586
- An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders.Spine J. 2011; 11: 64-72
- Therapy outcome after multidisciplinary treatment for chronic neck and chronic low back pain: a prospective clinical study in 365 patients.Scand J Rheumatol. 2006; 35: 363-367
- Treatment of neck pain: injections and surgical interventions: results of the bone and joint decade 2000-2010 task force on neck pain and its associated disorders.J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2009; 32: S176-S193
- Treatment of multilevel cervical fusion with cages.Surg Neurol. 2004; 62: 378-385
- Systematic review of cohort studies comparing surgical treatments for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010; 35: 537-543
- Appropriateness criteria for surgery improve clinical outcomes in patients with low back pain and/or sciatica.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010; 35: 672-683
- Cochrane review on the role of surgery in cervical spondylotic radiculomyelopathy.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2002; 27: 736-747
- Comparative effectiveness of ventral vs dorsal surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Neurosurgery. 2011; 68: 622-630
- The use of plate fixation in anterior surgery of the degenerative cervical spine: a comparative prospective clinical study.Eur Spine J. 2001; 10: 408-413
- A prospective randomized multicenter clinical evaluation of an anterior cervical fusion cage.Spine (Phila Pa 1976. 2000; 25: 2646-2654
- A comparison between the carbon fiber cage and the cloward procedure in cervical spine surgery: a ten- to thirteen-year follow-up of a prospective randomized study.Spine (Phila Pa 1976. 2011; 36: 919-925
- Quality of care is associated with survival in vulnerable older patients.Ann Intern Med. 2005; 143: 274-281
- Management of anterior cervical pseudarthrosis.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009; 11: 228-237
- Subsidence after anterior cervical inter-body fusion. A randomized prospective clinical trial.Neurosurg Rev. 2009; 32: 207-214
- Multidisciplinary biopsychosocial rehabilitation in chronic neck pain: a naturalistic prospective cohort study with intraindividual control of effects and 12-month follow-up.Eur J Phys Rehabil Med. 2019; 55: 665-675
- Noncontiguous anterior decompression and fusion for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a prospective randomized control clinical study.Eur Spine J. 2010; 19: 713-719
- Development of the "Core Yellow Flags Index" (CYFI) as a brief instrument for the assessment of key psychological factors in patients undergoing spine surgery.Eur Spine J. 2020; 29: 1935-1952
- Indications for anterior cervical decompression for the treatment of cervical degenerative radiculopathy.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009; 11: 174-182
- Techniques for anterior cervical decompression for radiculopathy.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009; 11: 183-197
- Strategies to achieve spinal fusion in multilevel anterior cervical spine surgery: an overview.HSS J. 2020; 16: 155-161
- Cervical surgical techniques for the treatment of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.J Neurosurg Spine. 2009; 11: 130-141
- Choice of plate may affect outcomes for single versus multilevel ACDF: results of a prospective randomized single-blind trial.Spine J. 2009; 9: 121-127
- Investigation of clinically important benefit of anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Eur Spine J. 2007; 16: 507-514
- Prediction of fusion and importance of radiological variables for the outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Eur Spine J. 2004 May; 13: 229-234
- Predictive factors for the outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Eur Spine J. 2003; 12: 274-280
- Predictive factors for long-term outcome of anterior cervical decompression and fusion: a multivariate data analysis.Eur Spine J. 2008; 17: 406-414
- Implant complications, fusion, loss of lordosis, and outcome after anterior cervical plating with dynamic or rigid plates: two-year results of a multi-centric, randomized, controlled study.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009; 34: 641-646
- Health-related quality of life and appropriateness of knee or hip joint replacement.Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166: 220-226
- Cervical disc arthroplasty compared with arthrodesis for the treatment of myelopathy.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008; 90: 2354-2364
- Cervical spine alignment, sagittal deformity, and clinical implications: a review.J Neurosurg Spine. 2013; 19: 141-159
- Cervical disc arthroplasty compared with fusion in a workers' compensation population.Neurosurgery. 2008; 63: 741-747
- Predictive validity of the STarT back tool for risk of persistent disabling back pain in a U.S. primary care setting.Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018; 99: 1533-1539
- Cervical spine deformity-part 3: posterior techniques, clinical outcome, and complications.Neurosurgery. 2017; 81: 893-898
- Cervical spine deformity-part 2: management algorithm and anterior techniques.Neurosurgery. 2017 Oct 1; 81: 561-567
- Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine: do we know enough for successful surgery?.J Spine Surg. 2020; 6: 124-135
- Trends and variations in cervical spine surgery in the United States: Medicare beneficiaries, 1992 to 2005.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009; 34: 955-961
- Trends in national use of anterior cervical discectomyand fusion from 2006 to 2016.World Neurosurg. 2020; 138: e42-e51
- Cervical corpectomy with preserved posterior vertebral wall for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a randomized control clinical study.Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2007; 32: 1482-1487
- Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: comparison of total disk replacement with anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Orthopedics. 2011; 34: e651-e658
- Plate fixation adds stability to two-level anterior fusion in the cervical spine: a randomized study using radiostereometry.Eur Spine J. 1998; 7: 302-307
North American Spine Society. Burr Ridge, IL 605272021; Available from: https://www.spine.org/Research-Clinical-Care/Quality-Improvement/Appropriate-Use-Criteria. Accessed in 2021.
- R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing.R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria2019
Harrell FE. rms: Regression Modeling Strategies. R package version 5.1-0 ed2017.
Therneau T BAB, Ripley B. Recursive Partitioning and Regression Trees. 4.1-15 ed. CRAN, 2019. p. Recursive partitioning for classification, regression and survival trees. An implementation of most of the functionality of the 1984 book by Breiman, Friedman, Olshen and Stone. https://github.com/bethatkinson/rpart
FDA Device/Drug Note: The manuscript does not discuss any drugs or devices requiring FDA approval.
Author disclosures: CAR: Nothing to disclose. JMH: Nothing to disclose. CJS: Consulting: Washington State Health Care Authority Health Technology Clinical Committee (A per meeting (one day), 4-5 meetings per year), BCBS Association (A for serving as Expert Panelist regarding the BCBS Association Blue Distinction Centers for Spine Surgery August 2011). CMB: Royalties: Wolters Kluwer (B, royalties for edited book), Informa Healthcare (B, royalties for edited book); Consulting: Harvard Clinical Research Institute (Reimbursed for time as part of the Trial Design Team, developing and implementing protocols for spine research); Other Office: Barricaid (data safety monitoring board, no remuneration yet, for prospective study of new device), JAAOS (B, Deputy Editor), The Spine Journal (Nonfinancial, Deputy Editor). CAM: Nothing to disclose. CGF: Nothing to disclose. CPK: Speaking and/or teaching arrangements: NASS (Course Director/Instructor NASS Coding Course, Travel/lodging reimbursed). DKR: Board of Directors: CNS (Nonfinancial); Scientific Advisory Board: Neurosurgical Research Foundation (Nonfinancial); Grants: AANS Spine Section (D, research grant through AANS, paid directly to institution/employer). DAW: Royalties: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins (A); Stock Ownership: Neurotech/CervIOM (20, 20), Denver Integrated Imaging North (20, 1), Huron Shores LLC (50, 50); Consulting: Anulex (B), Allosource (A), Deroyal (Financial, 0), United Healthcare (A); Speaking and/or teaching arrangements: Anulex (Financial, 0); Trips/Travel: Deroyal (A); Scientific Advisory Board: United Healthcare (A); Research Support (Staff/Materials): Abbott (B), Anulex (B), Cervitech/Nuvasive (A). HP: Board of Directors: NASS (Nonfinancial, reimbursed for travel to board meeting); Other Office: AAPM&R (B per quarter for Senior Editor, PMR Journal, paid directly to institution/employer); Research Support (Investigator Salary & Staff/Materials): Scott Nadler PASSOR Musculoskeletal Research Award (C, split between Dr. Prather and staff, paid directly to institution/employer); Grants: ICTS Just In Time Core Usage Funding (B, paid to the bio-statistics department, not to Dr. Prather). JSH: Stock Ownership: Axiomed (0, 0, option for 15,000 shares); Consulting: DePuy Spine (C travel, paid directly to institution/employer); Speaking and/or teaching arrangements: Medtronic (0, no longer a consultant); Trips/Travel: Stryker (travel to resident meeting); Board of Directors: Jefferson Medical College Physician Board (Nonfinancial); Scientific Advisory Board: Axiomed (Nonfinancial, Medical advisory board), Geron (Scientific advisory board with renumeration going to TJUH research funds, paid directly to institution/employer), DePuy (resident/fellow education board, paid directly to institution/employer), CNS (Nonfinancial, Executive Board, Chair of Publication Com, Editor of CNSQ, Chair for Neurosimulation project); Other Office: Penn Neurologic Society (Nonfinancial, Board of Pennsylvania Neurosurgical Society); Research Support (Staff/Materials): NACTN (E, Spinal cord injury trial network. support for database and riluzole trial, and administrators for studies. This is part of a Department of Defense Grant, paid directly to institution/employer). JB: Nothing to disclose. JCW: Royalties: Medtronics (C), Stryker (C), Seaspine (E), Osprey (C), Aesculap (B), Biomet (F), Amedica (D), Zimmer (E), Synthes (F); Stock Ownership: Fziomed (<1%); Private Investments: Promethean Spine (B, <1%), Paradigm spine (B, <1%), Benevenue (C, <1%), NexGen (B, <1%), K2 medical (B, <1%), Pioneer (B, <1%), Amedica (D, <1%), Vertiflex (B, 1%), Electrocore (C, <1%), Surgitech (C, <1%), Axiomed (< 1%); Board of Directors: NASS (Nonfinancial, reimbursement for travel for board meetings), CSRS (Nonfinancial, reimbursement for travel for board meetings), AO Spine/AO Foundation (D, honoraria for educational activities and travel reimbursement), Collaborative Spine Research Foundation (Nonfinancial, reimbursement for travel for board meetings); Scientific Advisory Board: VG Innovations (5,000 options, < 1% of company), Corespine (2,000 options, <1% of company), Expanding Orthopaedics (33,000 options, <1% of company), Syndicom (66,125 shares, <1% of company), Osprey (10 options, <1% of company), Amedica (35,416 options, <1% of company), Bone Biologics (51,255 shares, <1% of company), Curative Biosciences (1875 options, <1% of company), Pearldiver (25,000 options, <1% of company), Pioneer (3,636 options, <1% of company), Seaspine (11 options, <1% of company). JMS: Royalties: Titan Spine (C, TLIF and PLIF cages); Stock Ownership: Titan Spine (60000 shares), Etex Corp. (15000 shares), Paradigm Spine (157500 shares); Consulting: Titan Spine (<B for past 12 months); Speaking and/or teaching arrangements: Synthes Spine (Prodisc Cervical and Lumbar surgeon teaching, B per course plus travel expenses); Scientific Advisory Board: Titan Spine (15,000 warrants (approximately) vested over 5 years. No active remuneration). JS: Nothing to disclose. KDR: Royalties: Biomet (F, C-Tek & Maxan Anterior Cervical Plate), Osprey (C, Cervical Interbody Graft Royalty), Medtronic Sofamor Danek (G, Posterior Cervical Instrumentation); Stock Ownership: Osprey (options are 1%, no ownership of company), Expanding Orthopedics (No viable products. Exact # of shares unknown), Spineology (<1% of company), Spinal Kinetics (< 1% of company), Nexgen Spine (<1% of company), Amedica (<1% of company), Vertiflex (less than 1% of company), Benvenue (<1% of company), Paradigm Spine (<1% of company), PSD (<1% of company); Board of Directors: Korean Association of Spinal Surgeons (Nonfinancial), Cervical Spine Research Society (Nonfinancial); Scientific Advisory Board: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (Nonfinancial), Spine Journal (Nonfinancial); Grants: Medtronic (C, IDE participation, Paid directly to institution/employer). MAL: Royalties: Orthofix (E); Consulting: Orthofix (0); Scientific Advisory Board: Orthofix (A-H of specifically defined and documented work). MHH: Royalties: Relievant Medsystems (C, My institution has licensed technology that I invented. A royalty distribution was made to my employer, the Baylor College of medicine, the legal owner of the patent. A percentage of the royalty is shared with me, as the inventor, in the amount stated, according to institutional policy, paid directly to institution/employer), K2M (C, Minimum royalty for assigned patent. I am the sole inventor of the patented IP, which was developed without commercial support. The technology was assigned to K2M four years ago. A "minimum royalty" was paid to my employer, the Baylor College of Medicine, who share some of the royalty with me, per College policy. There is no product on the market using this technology. I own no stock in K2M, and do not consult for them, paid directly to institution/employer); Stock Ownership: Relievant Medsystems (45000, 1.6% of stock ownership in this company, which is developing a minimally invasive method for the treatment of axial pain, based in my IP.); Research Support (Investigator Salary): Department of Defense (E, Salary support for research efforts is provided by peer review federal grants. This supports (offsets) my salary from my medical school, but does not result in any change in my actual pay, paid directly to institution/employer); Grants: Department of Defense (Level I, I am Principal investigator on a large grant awarded for the tissue engineering of bone for the healing of long bone fractures. The awarded funding is distributed to support multiple investigators at Baylor College of Medicine, Rice University, the University of Texas, and the University of Georgia. The work is not directly related to the spine, and has not changed my salary, paid directly to institution/employer). PAA: Royalties: Stryker (C); Stock Ownership: Pioneer (250000); Consulting: Pioneer (C), Medtronic (F); Scientific Advisory Board: SI bone (Stock option); Other: Aesculap (C). RDR: Board of Directors: NASS (reimbursement for travel/expenses on behalf of NASS. No remuneration for participating on board); Scientific Advisory Board: US FDA Scientific Advisory Panel on Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices (reimbursement for travel/expenses on behalf on US FDA. Hourly rate for time spent at panel meetings @ approximately Level A/hour. Received Level A in 2010 from US FDA, and additional Level A for travel reimbursement); Other Office: AAOS (Chairman, Diversity Advisory Board. No remuneration. Travel reimbursement); Grants: US Department of Defense - Navy (G, paid directly to institution/employer), US Department of Defense – Army Medical Research Acquisition (F, paid directly to institution/employer), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (F, paid directly to institution/employer), US Department of Education, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (G, Paid directly to institution/employer); Other: The Spine Journal (Nonfinancial), Seminars in Spine Surgery (A). RMB: Board of Directors: ISIS (Nonfinancial, President of the International Spine Intervention Society). SEE: Board of Directors: Cervical Spine Research Society (Nonfinancial), American BoarEducation, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (G, Paid directly to institution/employer); Other: The Spine Journal (Nonfinancial), Seminars in Spine Surgery (A). d of Orthopaedic Surgery. WCW: Royalties: Stryker Corporation (B, Royalties paid at 0.5% on Dynatrans Cervical Plate); Board of Directors: NASS (Nonfinancial), World Spine Care (Nonfinancial), American College of Spine Surgeons (Nonfinancial); Scientific Advisory Board: Intrinsic Therapeutics (Nonfinancial, Stock Options (No current value), Palladian Health (A/hour for 2 meetings/year equaling B/year); Other: The Spine Journal (Nonfinancial), Spine Arthroplasty Journal (Nonfinancial, Assistant Editor), Spine (Nonfinancial, Reviewer), Kirby Glenn Surgical Center (formerly Med Center Surgery Center) (Financial, 1/22nd minority interest ownership). WJS: Trips/Travel: Emerging Technologies Education Summit (Travel expenses and honorarium: (B (yearly 2006-2012), Maadi Military Hospital, Egypt (B, Travel expenses December 2011); Other Office: AAPM&R (Both, Reimbursement and Policy Review Committee Chair Coding and Billing Workshop Course Director (honorarium/expenses Level B), NASS (Both, RUC Advisor (travel reimbursement) Coding Committee Co-Chair (travel reimbursement/honorarium) NASS Registry Committee (none) SpineLine Editorial Committee (none). WM: Stock Ownership: Johnson & Johnson (100 shares of common stock); Private Investments: South Jersey Cyberknife (1 share, no patient referrals to center, no profit seen in 4 years); Speaking and/or teaching arrangements: NASS (B/year honoraria Speaker NASS Coding Update courses); Trips/Travel: NASS (Both, NASS Coding Update courses Level B travel expenses incurred for 2 days (coach airfare, lodging, food, tolls, mileage)- 2 meetings/year NASS CPT Advisor (B, travel expenses incurred for AMA CPT meetings-3 meetings/year); Board of Directors: NASS (Nonfinancial, Health Policy Council, Director (B, travel expenses (coach airfare, meals, tolls). WT: Stock Ownership: Phygen (Physician-owned implant company involved in development and distribution of spinal implants, paid directly to institution/employer); Other Office: Board of Managers (B, board of manager term from 2009-2010). ZG: Board of Directors: AANS - Neuropoint Alliance, CNS, Collaborative Spine Research Foundation (Nonfinancial, I serve on the Board of Directors for the Neuropoint Alliance for the AANS. I also serve on the Executive Committee for the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. I also serve on the Board of Directors for the Collaborative Spine Research Foundation. I receive no compensation for any of these positions.); Research Support (Staff/Materials): Wallace Foundation (F, Private Research Foundation, paid directly to institution/employer); Grants: NIH (C, UL1 RR024146 CTSA Grant (Yale University), paid directly to institution/employer). All author disclosures are as of 10/16/2012 during AUC project except for JMH disclosure provided 5/4/2021.