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- Degenerative spondylolisthesis: does fusion method influence outcome? Four-year results of the spine patient outcomes research trial.Spine. 2010; 34: 2351-2360
- Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: a prospective randomized controlled study.Pain. 2006; 122: 145-155
- Randomized clinical trial of lumbar instrumented fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic low back pain and disc degeneration.Spine. 2003; 28: 1913-1921
- Lumbar fusion versus nonsurgical treatment for chronic low back pain: a multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Swedish Lumbar Spine Study Group.Spine. 2001; 26: 2521-2532
- Surgical interventions for lumbar disc prolapse: updated Cochrane review.Spine. 2007; 32: 1735-1747
- Surgical versus nonoperative treatment for lumbard disc herniation: four-year results for the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT).Spine. 2008; 33: 2789-2800
- Surgical vs. nonoperative treatment for lumbar disk herniation: the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT): a randomized trial.JAMA. 2006; 296: 2441-2450
- Outcome of lumbar arthrodesis in patients sixty-five years of age or older.J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010; 92: S77-S84
- Change in utilization of spinal fusion in the United States.Neurosurgery. 2006; 58: 15-20
- United States trends in lumbar fusion surgery for degenerative conditions.Spine. 2005; 30: 1441-1445
US Food and Drug Administration. InFUSE bone graft-P050053. Washington, D.C. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/DeviceApprovalsandClearances/Recently-ApprovedDevices/ucm077024.htm. Accessed March 16, 2011.
- Prevalence, complications, and hospital charges associated with use of bone-morphogenetic proteins in spinal fusion procedures.JAMA. 2009; 302: 58-66
Blue Cross of Idaho MP 7.01.100: Bone morphogenetic protein. 2010; Available at: www.bcidaho.com/providers/medical_policies/sur/mp_701100.asp. Accessed March 9, 2011.
- Trends in the use of bone morphogenetic protein as a substitute to autologous iliac crest bone grafting for spinal fusion procedures in the United States.Spine. 2011; 36: E274-E281
- Off-label use of bone morphogenetic proteins in the United States using administrative data.Spine. 2010; 35: 1794-1800
- Acute airway obstruction in cervical spinal procedures with bone morphogenetic proteins.Laryngoscope. 2010; 120: 1954-1957
- Slowing the growth of health care costs: lessons from regional variation.N Engl J Med. 2009; 260: 849-852
- Spinal fusion surgery: the case for restraint.N Engl J Med. 2004; 350: 722-726
- Clinical survey: patterns of utilization of lumbar epidural steroid injections by a cohort of spinal surgeons.PM R. 2009; 1: 329-334
- Expenditures and health status among adults with back and neck problems.JAMA. 2008; 299: 656-664
- The perioperative cost of infuse bone graft in posterolateral lumbar spine fusion.Spine J. 2008; 8: 443-448
- Iliac crest bone graft donor site pain after anterior lumbar interbody fusion: a prospective patient satisfaction outcome assessment.J Spinal Disord Tech. 2005; 18: S77-S81
- Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bone morphogenetic proteins in the non-healing of fractures and spinal fusion: a systematic review.Health Technol Assess. 2007; 11: 1-150
- Health care burden of cervical spine fractures in the United States: analysis of a nationwide database over a 10-year period.J Neurosurg Spine. 2010; 13: 61-66
- Population-based trends in volumes and rates of ambulatory lumbar spine surgery.Spine. 2006; 31: 1957-1963
- Impact of body habitus on perioperative morbidity associated with fusion of the thoracolumbar and lumbar spine.Neurosurgery. 2009; 65: 290-298
- Geographic variation and regional trends in adoption of endovascular techniques for cerebral aneurysms.J Neurosurg. 2011; 114: 1768-1777
- Early complications in spine surgery and relation to preoperative diagnosis: a single-center prospective study.J Neurosurg Spine. 2010; 13: 360-366
- Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 to achieve posterolateral lumbar spine fusion in humans: a prospective, randomized clinical pilot trial: 2002 Volvo Award in clinical studies.Spine. 2002; 27: 2662-2673
- Outcomes for single-level lumbar fusion: the role of bone morphogenetic protein.Spine. 2011; 36: 2354-2362
- Adverse effects associated with high-dose recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 use in anterior cervical spine fusion.Spine. 2006; 31: 542-547
- Donor site morbidity after anterior iliac crest bone harvest for single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion.Spine. 2003; 28: 134-139
- RhBMP-2 versus iliac crest bone graft for lumbar spine fusion: a randomized, controlled trial in patients over sixty years of age.Spine. 2008; 33: 2843-2849
- Economic evaluation of bone morphogenetic protein versus autogenous iliac crest bone graft in single-level anterior lumbar fusion: an evidence-based modeling approach.Spine. 2002; 27: S94-S99
US Department of Health and Human Services Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services National Physician Fee Schedule and Relative Value Scales. Washington, DC 2011; Available at: http://www.cms.gov/apps/physician-fee-schedule/documentation.aspx. Accessed March 25, 2011.
- Complications of posterior lumbar interbody fusion when using a titanium threaded cage device.J Neurosurg. 2000; 93: 45-52
- Are lumbar spine reoperation rates falling with greater use of fusion surgery and new technology?.Spine. 2007; 32: 2119-2126
- Pseudarthrosis following lumbar interbody fusion using bone morphogenetic protein-2: intraoperative and histopathologic findings.Orthopedics. 2008; 31: 1031-1034
FDA device/drug status: Approved (bone morphogenetic protein—Infuse).
Author disclosures: PRD: Nothing to disclose. RGW: Nothing to disclose. GAS: Nothing to disclose. MGM: Nothing to disclose. JKR: Royalties: Biomet Spine (E); Stock Ownership: Johnson and Johnson (0 shares, sold); Consulting: Stryker Spine (D).
The disclosure key can be found on the Table of Contents and at www.TheSpineJournalOnline.com.